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Iselin,New Jersey/USA- Chemicals cluster BASF is not off course for the massive battery. One week when the takeover, acquired the yank Society of Ovonic Battery Company, the electrolytes of the business of Merck Ludwigshafen. when the stock battery manufacturer within the us usZionto $ fifty million the third major investment by Toshiba PA3399U-1BAS BASF battery material in an exceedingly short time.

Mounted large battery

He explicitly stated goal of changing into a number one provider of purposeful materials and parts of the cell and battery manufacturer with the acquisition of a division of Merck electrolyte shouldn't be initiated.

Parallel to the study of electrolyte formulations and therefore the development of cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, BASF is currently engaged on alternative new ideas, like lithium-sulfur battery or lithium-air. per BASF, the batteries are a key technology for electrical mobility of the long run. BASF can thus invest many legion euros in analysis, development and production of construction materials, drums.

Coil materials is increasingly vital for BASF

Battery Materials could be a division of BASF Catalysts Iselin, New Jersey. At the conference BASF explores the concept of the intelligent cooperation with Daimler forvision energy potency, light, temperature management, and increase the vary of electrical vehicles.

With the acquisition of Ovonic based mostly in Rochester Hills, Michigan acquires BASF the world's leading battery nickel metal hydride (NiMH) and production of cathode material for batteries of this kind, whose headquarters are in hunt for Dell Latitude E6500 materials Battery, Troy / Michigan.

Ovonic NiMH technology invented in use these days and holds ninety seven patents and patent applications during this field each at home and abroad. Currently, the work of all major makers of Ovonic NiMH batteries with licenses.


Acquisition of Merck battery electrolyte added portfolio of BASF

The acquisition of Merck conjointly includes electrolytes designed, patented and marketed in bound technologies and product that improve farm performance. This includes an entire vary of ready-electrolyte formulations by Merck underneath the name Selectilyte industrial markets. There are varied additives to the electrolyte for the assembly of lithium-ion batteries. it's conjointly the portfolio of analysis relevant to Merck for brand new electrolytes and additives.

Agreement to amass BASF's

"The acquisition of BASF Ovonic currently occupies a number one position in technology, the nickel-metal hydride and longstanding relationships with the world's largest manufacturer of the battery," said Ralf Meixner, senior vice chairman materials farm activity of BASF. "Additionally, Ovonic of excellent analysis skills effectively complement this development of generalized BASF in battery materials."

"We are delighted to be, a part of the business records of the battery of BASF," said Michael Fetcenko, Ovonic Battery Company President. "BASF's experience in materials science and method technology could be a tremendous resource development synergies, the advanced nickel-metal answer is for the patron, automotive and smart-grid energy storage are going to be greatly accelerated."

The acquisition can expand our capabilities for automotive makers worldwide and battery. we tend to emphasize that our goal is to position BASF in an exceedingly dynamic market as a solutions-oriented partner for battery makers, "explains Dr. Andreas Kreimeyer, board member and head of analysis at BASF, and adds:" The portfolio of Merck and market access developed, takes us any in our development as a reliable provider of electrolyte formulations, Dell XPS M1210 Battery makers to supply innovative and customised solutions. "


Our business thrives with electrolytes to BASF has glorious future prospects. we tend to are happy to be created accessible to the purchasers of Merck and development partners at BASF have a reliable provider of latest and extremely innovative, future challenges like the promotion of sustainable electrical vehicles these days, "said Dr. Klaus Bofinger, that Merck derives in vary of advanced technologies included the divested business.

Darmstadt/Ludwigshafen( - The pharmaceutical and chemical company Merck inDarmstadt, sold his company with electrolytes for top performance batteries on the chemical company BASF. This gave the 2 firms announced on Tuesday. the acquisition value has been created not one detail. per a spokesman for BASF, however, ought to tens of legion the number that the AXF-dpa reported.

The acquisition includes Merck developed technologies already on the market, to enhance battery performance. there's conjointly the institute's analysis focus is in relation to the corresponding Merck electrolytes and electrolyte additives.

"It could be a treat from us in recent years on cases with electrolytes or within the industrial development and has few points of contact with our alternative activities in chemistry. additionally, there's only1 apart of the necessities of shoppers, makers of Batteries offers, "said Klaus Bofinger, to blame for the sector of Merck Advanced Technologies.

BASF aims to determine itself with the new international "Battery Materials' business unit on the market. during this context, the corporate are going to be a very important electrolytes from Merck, he was told by BASF. For Merck, that in flip was the electrolyte activity over a marginal space of the activities of the opposite cluster within the chemical had very little in common.

A real looking spree seen the new Dell Vostro 1510 Battery materials at BASF inLudwigshafenparent company, said on Tuesday he took over from Merck Darmstadt electrolyte Chemical Company. it's the third acquisition during this space some weeks. "The purchase value was within the low double-digit millions," said a spokesman for Merck. when the chemical cluster within the electrolytes in batteries on charge transport and marketed by Merck underneath the name "Selectilyte". For "life sciences" Merck specialists, specializing in product like prescribed drugs and cosmetics, the electrolyte wasn't quite the event portfolio. BASF however they match perfectly into the new concept: "This acquisition is our ability to automobile makers and therefore the battery to increase into the planet," says BASF, analysis Director Andreas Kreimeyer.

Just last week, BASF announced the acquisition of the yank Society of specialised cells for Ovonic Battery announced $ fifty eight million. In early January, BASF has conjointly developed an interest for 2 years within the power of lithium-Zion-specialists within theU.S.state ofArizonafor $ fifty,000,000, were reached when a joint study and development goals.


A total of € three hundred million to the chemical company, headquartered inLudwigshafenin 2016 to take a position within the parts sector of the battery. The goal: within the field of battery technology so as to defend the position of CEO of BASF Kurt Bock as a number one provider to the automotive business. Strategy in its outlook for the approaching year, announced in November, he sees growth potential inEurope, notably within the development of electrical vehicles and renewable energies. Frank took Bozich, president of the world division of BASF Catalysts, said:. "Our participation within the power ofZionis our long-term goal, the leader within the field of purposeful materials and parts for the battery manufacturer's friendly and therefore the cell within the world"

BASF has taken early within the analysis and production of all sectors of the region and its new battery business units of the battery materials. The new vary currently sells materials for lithium-ion batteries, however conjointly BASF chemist future analysis ideas like  lithium-sulfur Dell Vostro 1720 battery or lithium-air. the top of the subsidiary BASF Battery expect an annual growth of 10 % of this market. In 2020, BASF has implemented to € five hundred million on battery technology.

Thus, BASF manager is probably even too low. Ferdinand Dudenhoeffer of the middle for Automotive analysis at the Universityof Duisburg-Essenbelieves that to be € in 2025 to regarding one hundred thirty billion spent for the energy storage high-tech, however at a similar time warns. "Those who invest currently here should persevere within the coming back years, the quantity remains low, the market is currently quite slow -. From the initial hype, the air is" BASF's strategy, he says, a gaggle buying of chemicals is currently primarily analysis and patent rights. Mere participation in Ovonic secure access to ninety seven patents in battery technology: "If the market moves thus once allows the assembly of chemical upscale comparatively straightforward." Complete stack remains in all probability not, BASF: "The power electronics for alternative anyway - BASF will have a big proportion of the worth of the cells from that represented a battery added, able to supply."

Electrolyte-selling Merck had run a year ago, given a project to style and manufacture of latest battery materials known. In collaboration with researchers at theUniversityofFreiburg, "Merck Battery Materials Laboratory" new electrolytes for Toshiba PA3818U-1BRS lithium-ion batteries are being developed. however the corporate sees for himself, despite the prospect of future sales within the billions with no future within the case of batteries, "We ought to invest heavily within the coming back years," said a spokesman: ". There was many space to store."

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According to a comparative study by Bio Intelligence Service and ADEME, at the request of the manufacturer Uniross batteries, rechargeable batteries (Ni-MH) are more environmentally friendly than disposables. Based on comparative analysis of the life cycle of a NiMH battery Dell Inspiron 1520 Battery and charger, and a disposable battery alkaline, measured and compared to study the environmental effects of both types of cells in all stages of their life cycle: production, distribution, use and at the end of life on the basis of the same amount of energy (1 kWh). 11 indicators of potential environmental impacts have been only five eco-profile: the consumption of natural resources, climate change, ozone pollution, air acidification, water pollution. The study also effects in terms of waste batteries.

Validated by the Fraunhofer Institute in Germany, the results show below that consume an equivalent amount of energy (1 kWh) battery up to 23 times less non-renewable resources: equity implications of a battery rechargeable is equivalent to1 kgusing oil as against19 kgfor disposable batteries. In addition, the battery up to 9 times less impact on air acidification of alkaline batteries and up to 28 times less impact on global warming. In terms of emissions of greenhouse gases,Dell Latitude E6500 Battery the effects of a rechargeable battery, the equivalent of16 kmto457 kmby car to the battery, the disposable. So in the end, when all the disposable batteries inEuropewere replaced by rechargeable batteries, it would avoid to consume non-renewable resources as a city of 100,000 inhabitants. Another advantage of the rechargeable battery is reduced the amount of waste. The study provided a list of resources for each type of battery (rechargeable and disposable) are used, taking into account all the materials used. Results for 1 kWh of energy, rechargeable battery sufficient, while it takes 93 packets of disposable batteries, which suggests the amount of waste avoided.

These results make more sense, to be held as part of the week waste reduction at this time, November 11. Animated toys, electronic games, the most remote controls, MP3 players and home appliances: increase the use of cells in the everyday life of European families, and French. Today there are an average of 23 units to the internal battery against18 in2002. According to the Agency of Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) in 2006 were 987 million batteries on the market, the French 28 726 tons, but only 30% of these batteries are placed in specific recovery and recycling will be sold. Given this explosion needs and the low level of recycling, the battery provides a good alternative to disposable batteries.Dell Inspiron 1525 Battery Furthermore, with volume growth of 20% between 2005 and 2006 of the European market will explode rechargeable batteries. InFrance, these growth rates are identical, and in 2006 was the battery market inFrance25 million units.

Uniross remember, however, that a good use of rechargeable batteries can to maximize its environmental benefits. A battery can be recharged hundreds of times, with the exception of a few simple rules of use are used: Avoid high temperatures, with the normal charger and prevent overcharging. During use, it is best to choose a suitable rechargeable battery, whose power is that of the device: a device for mass consumption (MP3 player), high-capacity rechargeable batteries (2500mAh) produce 2.5 times less impact on rechargeable batteries, the environment of low capacity (1300 mAh). Quick charger (1 hour) can also be compared by three environmental impact of the use phase with a slow charger (10 h) are divided. Finally, remember UNIROSS separate charger when batteries are fully charged to avoid energy losses. End of life of the battery must be recycled and are deposited in appropriate receptors, as in the case of disposable batteries.

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The chemical and biochemical sensors, electrochemical fuel coniiaissent now, as all sensors, a conceptual and technological revolution. This is mainly due to two factors:

- The increasing severity of environmental NameBrowse, food, pharmaceutical, security indiistrielle, home automation ...

- Needs microsensors fabulous bio-compatible or not for medical monitoring and diagnosis.

- The generalization of process automation in the industrial process engineering.

- The second most recent downturn, but in the power of the miniaturization of microelectronics technologies is widespread.

This last point, which determines the possibilities for increasing the production of sensors is very important because it leads noiivelIes ideas on the constitution and methods of use thereof.

Niacrocapteurs an idea that is, sensors centimeter, often with electronic rather difficult (the glass electrode is an excellent example) and used in a unique way it needs to present individual perfomlances remarkable sensitivity and selectivity are reversible particularly appropriate to replace micro-sensors, millimeter, at least, by methods of mass production and iitilisés often together. This mass production is planned a number of properties of the reduction and improved reliability at a very low colit and in particular a natural ability with the clutch traitenient signal integratedSony VGP-BPS13 battery circuits (since this is mass production accordingly cliissique).

This Possibility opens up two important consequences:

- To facilitate First, the analytical signal can correct the disruptive effects of artifacts such as the influence of temperature or other stimuli. This gives the sensors can react spontaneously, ie, "smart".

- Second, the ability to manage multiple sensors to multiplex excerpt from a network in which each element is not responding correctly to the various components of a mixture, but may create by calculating the analytic signal corresponding to each pure. Chemometrics and this is the best known example is to create networks of olfactory recognition (the "electronic nose") (2). This is an opportunity because it is the duty importarite absolutely necessary for sensors chimiclues selectivity, a problem that has time and again their development, which does not dissolve naturally, instead, and the simple reduction triggers. Unlike the Sony VAIO VGN-FW21L battery

Biology and biochemistry and their reactions are, of course, selectively couples each participating enzyme / substrate and anticorpsfantigène contains only small molecules and ions can be distinguished too close, "recognized", easily. The combination of imperfect network microsensors with signal processing circuit, a powerful solution to this problem that will definitely take some weight connected in the coming years.

II - Methods of miniaturization

The current trend towards miniaturization of sensors, chemical, electrochemical, and others.

Miniaturization methods use a combination of techniques, microelectronics, chemical impregnation strong as it is shaped to form three-dimensional structures of metal compounds, semiconductor or dielectric. To run, siiccessivernent, operatioris deposition or erosion of materials in an appropriate sequence of rnicrozoiies are defined by photolithographic methods. A brief summary of the main methods used for the production microsensors is here.

All methods rely on the ability of miniaturization is able to transmit to the projection of light, the image of an opaque mask for defining the shapes of substrates to be processed (usually silicon wafers was here or quartz). The result is photoresist, the photoresist obtained. The HP Mini 1000 battery parts are UV reticiilation cohesion and chemical insolubility strengthened or weakened formatioii hydrophilic groups, are qii'elles second "negative" or "positive". This leads to a selective dissolution of the reasons are more soluble. This geometry allows the "open" window in the shape of the mask defines the access and possibly underlying matter. This is the basis of the production technology "plane" of silicon integrated circuits. for example, silica dissolves provided to facilitate access to silicon, which can then in the following treatment (corrosive attack on the various deposits) have by hydrofluoric acid.

The size Microsensors for common sub-micron resolution, this procedure is usually sufficient, and it is not necessary, except for the LIGA technique, which will see below, using the methods of limitation with rayonnen X-ient or beams electrons used in microelectronics integration very high. Therefore, the reasons are not more than a few Microns in height.

The sample is deposited on a horizontal plate (traction control) rotates at a speed in a controlled temperature conditions assessedby. In this way, the viscosity of the resin results in a repeatable controlled thickness. This is the spin-coating. The units are comparable in size to dust, like all these other micro-fabrication operations are usually in "clean rooms" sprinkled.

2 - The deposition of thin films (about qiielqiies inicromètres or less)

The method is by far the most widely used is the CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition). In a reactor with thick walls and generally low pressure (LPCVD), the substrates to be treated in the presence of gases that react in contact with them while traveling in the desired material. To operate at a lower temperature, the Dell Latitude E5500 battery energy can be generated using a plasma (PECVD) or photon (EECVD). The polysilicon, commonly used in the microstructures, is then by the reaction of SiH 4 to 400 ° C is reached, while the silica at 450 ° C, by the action of a mixture of 0 2 S and that this process is often used for the deposition of a dielectric material is to determine the starting point for the treatment of a silicon substrate ERI, the tnermique its oxidation in a dry atmosphere of oxygen or wet, which allows growth of the single silica extremely smooth.

Another method, the growth of oxide layers, is very simple for now is that the soaking method

Approach is based on a sol-gel. Metal alkoxides are immersed in an appropriate alcohol and as a sample to be coated milieii precurseurs.L in the solution and then slowly extracted, to obtain a steam bath desired by hydrolysis-polycondensation, Co ~ IC. A trriiteinent therniique is therefore necessary to convert the gel into oxidized compounds. The having a thickness of 100 to 300 nm. The spin-coating has already been described for distributing the photoresist. There is also widespread,in particular, for distributing polymers in a solvent which is then evaporated dissolved.

For the deposition of metals, is the most common method of thermal evaporation. Sealing is carried into the chamber at low pressure (0 to ~ 1 Torr) obtained by Joule effect evaporation (tungsène resistance wire or molybdenum) is performed. The object is directed towards the source of metal atoms. 2 shows that the deposit is a metal pattern on the surface of the resin on the entire surface. Remove the resin layer by immersion in a solvent, it breaks at the junction of the thin window. This method is a widely used method of "lift-off." Other methods that the thermal process is used to piilverisation atom, such as ion bombardment (sputtering) or electronically.

3 - Deposits of thick film materials

In its natural form, screen printing is a process that an opaque pattern on a transfer gate cutting wires on a substrate with a paste which is forced by the free part of himself, is established. With its principle, the method requires no photolithography processes, but the lateral resolution is much lower. Cooking also helps solidify the paste, which is passed through the system. This is a process widely used for ceramic inserts.

Pulp (or ink) are sensitive to light with respect to current, is now the process of photolithography.

4 - The erosion of the material (etching) (3-5)

It is gas or ion faqon niilieu (erosion by plasma) or is carried out in a liquid medium (chemical erosion) is.

In the first method, substances are extracted ion bombardment photolitho graphiees windowing. For layers of resin, this attack can withstand, while deep wells can be dug by a few hundred nanometers, with a small surface. Erosion can be mechanical, when management essentiellenient ions from the surface of an electronic box, inert materials, such as argon ions.

It may be the chemical nature, when the reactive molecules are used. Siliciiim erosion is achieved by a

SFG + Cl 2 plasma and that of silica from a CF4 + H2 plasma.

In the second of these methods is the liquid medium to attack the name of the etchant. The attack is done by simply soaking in the milieii. This is an oxidative corrosion, if the attack is rapid, resulting in an isotropic solution, and if it is slow, which differ by a resolution in the anisotropic crystal planes of single crystals Etch rates vary widely (6-7). To monocrystalline silicon, in the usual manner quickly etchant CP-4A, nitric acid mélande, hydrofluoric acid and acetic acid, while a 44% potassium hydroxide has a strong action anisotropic 85oC. In the latter case, the erosion rate plans <Ill> tens to hundreds of times lower Plans, the <1 IO> and <100>. If the level is, the silicon wafers are processed, wherein the plane <100> practice window whose sides are parallel to the plane obtained <1 10>, for example, shaped slots of inclination with respect to vertical openings, 35 '3.

The use of masks with an appropriate form, several levels of attack and the shape of the window, it is possible with this method

Anisotropic resolution three-dimensional shapes to build, but are limited in height to the thickness of a few micrometers of the resin. 3 by reference numeral 7, which is the principle of generating a beam of high silica.

5 - Production process according to the method of microobiets sacrifice layers

Play on the stack of layers, usually by CVD, dielectric materials (SiO2, Si3N4) or metal (Al) or silicon polycristaIlin and use of selective solvent, it is possible, some of them are dissolved in dissolving insoluble material parts.

Be carried out, as above, the flat objects, instead of actual three-dimensional. Parts are usually identified

The polysilicon layers and eliminated silice.La Figure 4 shows how to rotate a space, remove the circular symmetry. This is a technological revolution has introduced this method in recent years. It is represented by the generation of electrostatic micro-motor of several hundred microns in diameter.

6 - Process and Dar fabncation microobiets tithomaphie LIGA process. Galvanoformun Abdformund

Production methods described above have the disadvantage of allowing a limited relief. LIGA technology, of German origin, overcomes this disadvantage by UV radiation, but X-ray and polymethyl methacrylate resins suitable materials. Articles having a thickness of several hundred microns can be produced. Intense sources of X-rays are necessary to avoid lengthy operations are necessary, and we are therefore led to the use of synchrotron radiation. The method is expensive.

Production of items Dell Studio XPS 16 Battery made by the openings in the resin filler metal (Ni, Cu) deposited electrolytically. When many voices to be done, either by injecting a resin into the metal matrix and with this form, works in the negative, as a form where there is a new electrolytic growth of the property stated metal.A short, it should add a few special techniques, special production. This is the case for example the production of porous silicon for the anodic oxidation of silicon hydrofluoric acid environment. The erosion of the material in the form of a network of canals, is a few tens of nanometers to thermal oxidation plus.Par iitiliser stabilizes this structure as a porous. We know how important this is in electrochemistry. It is also the case of welding glass-silicon or silicon-silicon, welding can electrostatically (and chemical) when the plates of the material web is formed.

III - Micro Sensors

With the arsenal of the provision of micro-manufacturing process, you get the choice of micro-object.

The analysis of the literature shows that both channels are being used to miniaturize the sensors. The first is simply overwhelming Macro Sensors Ilne shown. The second is based on chemical sensitization or "functionalization" of devices based on oriented, reflected the transformation undergone by a recognition element (probe or receiver) in contact with species from a physical effect that always ends detects an electrical signal. This translation device called a transducer.

As it is rare that the conditions for the use of microsensors a comparable level of miniaturization required for the chip, an object size of millimeter wave sensors are in fact as a microsensor. Miniaturization technologies are not taken to extremes here.

A prime example is the classical Sony VGP-BPS13 batteries amperometric Clark electrode for the determination of dissolved oxygen by cathodic reduction itself. A planar realization of this sensor is based on Swiss Centre dtElectronique and Microtechnology is based. On a silicon substrate is oxidized to be deposited, surrounded by the use of conventional techniques of integrated circuits, the two electrodes, the thin layer has a silver cathode by an anode centrdle Ag / AgCl. A hydrogel used as an electrolyte is then passed through a silicone membrane, which is held guided ensures the penetration of oxygen.

emple is a micro-sensor d'oxygene gaseous zirconia is based. In this sensor, the solid electrolyte layer (here SCZ) is formed by screen printing. The flow of oxygen in the electrolyte CSZ, conductive O -, can be actuated to the cell in the system of diffusion through a porous platinum electrode 6. The reference electrode consists Ilne PdPdO.

A final example, the enzyme glucose electrode. It contains a reference electrode AdAgCl, a cathode, which is the reduction of hydrogen peroxide by the enzymatic reaction and the electrode against. Glucose polyiiréthane a membrane, the membrane keeping the glucose oxidase.

2 - Functionalization of microtransducers

Microtransducers were reviewed, dell inspiron 1300 batteries electronic components whose natural ability, the most interesting devices with piezoelectric materials and optical fibers to integrate. All are used in an aqueous medium, but only the electrochemical nature. Although the passive components, resistors and capacitors are widely used, these are the active components of field effect transistors current. The acronym FET (field effect transistors) is commonly used to identify and are used as sensors, ISFET (ion sensitive FET), if the ENFET ions for sensors and IMMUNOFET enzymes seen ( immunosensors) are determined. It is this kind of sensors, which show an example that the work of different types of functionalization.

A field effect transistor in silicon is a component niodification a MOSFET (FET semiconductor metal oxide) as

In a silicon wafer, typically p-type heavily doped two enclaves N (N +) are or drain and source of electrons that move in the network with the creation of a silica-drain oxide ~ i created

The effect of the field in the semiconductor by an appropriate bias voltage between the surface and the surface which is applied niétallisation

Rear of the component. Metallizations other than the drain and the source (so-called contact "ohmic"), the input and output Stream ID is to be the analytical signal.

In Figure 8 of the electron density of points (electron-rich zone N, P Band electron-poor). In the absence ofelectrical bias between the A and B, no current flows between drain and source, as there are now two pn junctions in opposition.

The application of a negative bias voltage VG on the grid in series, on the basis of the facearrière, the electric field pushes the electrons in the conduction band and is always equal to zero.

If we reverse this polarization, the electrons accumulate in the door (such as accumulation) in a very thin channel source.L between the drain and the occurrence of the drain current ID of a given VT- value of the gate voltage is obtained which guarantees that the threshold Dell XPS M1530 batteries voltage.

The removal of the metallization of the gate dielectric, the devices for electrical loads, which may be present to collect on the surface is bare or membrane recognition sensitizer. This is what is done wherein the liquid medium provided that the electrical continuity between the outer surface of the dielectric and the modified base with a reference electrode.

Occurs in the chain of possible VG, the voltage drop on the surface of the dielectric changed. When the type of attachment is "detected", then the receiving surface is fixed, causes a change of this document, which leads to a change in threshold SONY VGP-BPS9/B voltage VT and the translation of the VGID to generate characteristic of the sensor. Such devices can then Operation with a constant or VG ID.

This raises the question of functionalization. As we can see some dielectric properties? Given different answers to this question remains of which are relevant to other types of sensors as described above are used. The book will be consulted with profit Janata égard.a they are - last ROF ~ ~ idt are himiques ropriétésc the dielectric surface in aqueous media, the conventional dielectric (Si02, Si3N4, silicon oxi ...) hydrolyze s' superficiellenient the silanol Si - OH. This hydrolysis is also observed for other dielectrics such as Ta205 or Al203. The acid-base-X - OH, then the appearance of a positive surface charge at acidic pH leads formed (or more precisely, at pH values ​​below the point of zero charge PZC) for these surfaces form clusters X OH2 + and negative charge at higher pH-X group forming. The ionic equilibrium between the surface and the immersion solutions, in response to a potential proton Nernst, leading to 59 mV per pH unit. PH sensors of this type are currently on the Dell XPS M1210 Battery market, particularly in France.

b - ~ odt receptors and membrane inorraniaues

Many inorganic membranes for the detection of the membrane are promising ions.Une, for example coiistitiiée NASICON (Na 3 Zr2Si2P012) for the detection of alkali metal ions. Although other membranes and insoluble and are involved in ion exchange between himself and the solution, and, in principle, a Nernst response. This is particularly the case in LaF3 membrane or aluminosilicate glass. These membranes are generally used by good adhesion is an important parameter for the duration of the sensors, but unfortunately a relatively small number of Dell Inspiron 1420 Battery materials for such use.

c - ~ From odt and membrane receptor-organic

As a macro-electrodes, we are looking for immobilization of receptor molecules in an organic protective film. The best example is the reaction of PVC membranes of large molecules, including valynomicine, for the detection of potassium ions is known. The method has a greater diversity due to the large number of available molecules (ionophores complexing, chelating agents, crown ethers), but suffer in general have poor adhesion of the membranes on the substrate and a carrier inophores often insufficient in resin at home. There is also the problem of the dissolution of plasticizers (16). Finally, when the thick membrane siiffisamn-ient, we can reduce the conductivity as Dell Inspiron E1405 Battery gate insulator and an increase in reaction time.

D - ~ The ion lantationd

Some results were published in the field of use of ion implantation of artificial ion conduction. Examples include work by Pham of monovalent ions in the silica plant. Method suffers from a very limited number of possibilities and examined.

Recently, functionalization niethode insulating substrates has been proposed, in particular silicon by grafting onto the surface of the resulting string long with a temperature INADL group recognition silanized E ~. This is achieved by chemical reaction of these molecules with silanol groups, which is already established on the surface of a dielectric made treatment with chromic acid.

Regardless of the method was, can also be applied to the formation of coiiches released to be used to correct a large n ~ olecules biochemical and biological recognition.

All the functionalization of microsensors mCthodes microtransducers rkalisation was pretty good, but usually only expect malheureusenlent sklectifs douCs qualitCs the future, which is the claim of objects through the Collective fabriquCs mCthodes. We can then espCrer actuellernent these microsensors in the near future, problbmes rCponse many analytical chemists currently available.

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It is possible to integrate solar cells based on real small sizes on mobile devices. You can mini-cells, which are integrated into the rear of the unit. These cells are primarily mono-crystalline (for better performance). It may in the future of high performance solar cell type multi-junction to share the spectrum, to increase energy capture. These cells reach an efficiency of 40%!

Viber for Android: free VoIP calls over 3G and WiFi

The application Viber is one of the most commonly downloaded applications, and free for calls and text messages between iPhones. After a beta version for Android, Viber here that the application for Android was officially launched on 21st July, 2011. What is this application for use nationally and internationally?

Viber for Android: Better than Skype to make calls and free SMS

If Skype is one of the most effective ways to send free phone calls or chat with contacts Viber revolutionized the world of free communication via VoIP. In fact, unlike Skype is not Viber appointment, no profiles are created: Once you have downloaded the application, you can contact to your contacts with this application. Another advantage of Skype you can call or SMS message to all your contacts on the phone with Viber Viber, 3G or WiFi.

After his success on the iPhone is the long-awaited arrival of Viber on Android finally announced

Nanotechnology. Progress or Peril?

Nanotechnology, what is it?

To be very simple, we can say that nanotechnology is the technology of the infinitesimally small. The prefix "nano" refers to a nanometer, which corresponds to a billionth of a meter or one millionth of a millimeter. A nanometer is 30.000fois smaller than the diameter of a hair. This is the scale of atoms and molecules. This is the heart of the matter.

Where can I find one of the nanoparticles?

In many objects of daily life. AFSSET identified 246 manufactured products: the toothbrush, salt, no history of teddy bears and tennis rackets. For its part, the table CNDP 800 objects from everyday life. Some may contain substances to prevent odors. Similarly, "sunscreens are titanium dioxide encapsulated in aluminum," said Fabien Thomas, director of research at CNRS.

Why does it take you interested?

Since it was found that the nanometer scale, metals, materials and objects, properties and behavior significantly from those it with the standard size. By controlling the organization of atoms and molecules, man can create objects with new properties and more efficient. For example, gold as a metal inert gas in particular is known, the state nanoscale, chemically very reactive. These new physico-chemical properties and open a wide field of research.

For what?

The aim of nanotechnology is to produce objects or materials 100nanomètres below. These nanomaterials are nanoparticles called, which is in contrast to natural origin, such as very fine particles, formed on the goal. Example: Carbon Nanotubes: When in the wild, the carbon atoms organize themselves spontaneously to give the diamonds, the researchers introduced a new type of carbonaceous material. Their stiffness is typically 100 times higher than that of steel.

What is the point?

All sectors will eventually be affected by nanotechnology. The development will they say to change our lives. The possibility of reducing the size of objects while increasing their performance promises products smaller, lighter, more powerful and effective. In the medical field, many applications are considered: the nanotubes and nanoparticles could be used to provide treatment directly to diseased cells to be. In transport, nanotechnologies are expected to develop stronger and lighter materials.

What kind of products?

It is estimated that already contain more than 500 consumer products nanoparticles. Some examples are: insalissables textiles with a film of silver nanoparticles, self-cleaning glass, as thin films of titanium oxide or toothpaste with calcium phosphate nanoparticles are deposited to fill the tiny cracks in the teeth covered. The main sectors are currently involved in nanotechnology consumer products, health and sports (clothing, sports equipment, cosmetics, body care, sun protection), electronics and computers, applications and other surface coatings foodborne.

What are the risks?

Many questions arise about the dangers of nanotechnology, including nanoparticles, health and the environment. What, for example, the toxicity of some nanoparticles, which are known to overcome biological barriers, of course. "Until she asbestos," some say. Associations such as the Friends of the Earth called for a moratorium on the information available. Ethical issues also arise, including nanotechnology could be very effective in the pursuit of the people they are not an additional risk of invasion of privacy?

The researchers are cautious about the risks. "This is not reactive, gold nanoparticles are non-toxic reagents. You are a potential for toxicity, "said Fabien Thomas. The first danger is that these nanoparticles can penetrate the body's cells. "We have no certainty, but it could be found in sunscreens penetrate the skin," he said.

Environmental hazards

As in the human body, and yet nothing is proved that page. But talk about the problem AFSSET version in the environment. "Under the laundry odorless nanoparticles in nature and fish," said Fabien Thomas. With less than 10 years of experience in this area, it is difficult to move forward with confidence to real risks. It should be traceability and labeling requirements associated.

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diggdi : : smaller cells


In 2004, like many enthusiasts, Kentaro Toyama for telecentres in India, where for a computer, children learn to computer, a few hours use per month in a language he does not speak because he had found in Retawadi, India. At that time, Kentaro Toyama Microsoft Research computer VGP-BPS13/Q Battery responsible for the initiation of a laboratory in Bangalore. He was also the headquarters of the ICT4D (Information and Communication Technologies for Development), an association for the advancement of information technology and communications (ICT) for development. At this point, promotes Indian Telecentre ICT4D, promoted by external organizations (NGOs, universities, companies) to accelerate the socio-economic growth is promoted with the objectives of profit and nonprofit, the telecentre was social services for community and income for the local businessman who operated the call center.

The hopes of the 2000s: technology, development of solutions?

"Some telecentres have been successful. An operator in South India, the culture of saving okra how a farmer speaks with an expert from the University to give. Another boasted of its sales after the opening of Sony VGP-BPS13computer training center tripled. When headlines were flattering, "Soybean farmers in India to the global village", "The introduction of digital villages, the Indians away," "Farmers like the Kenyans cheer the savior of the Internet potatoes "."

"These stories of great hope for telecentres: Distance learning enables each child a scientist, telemedicine can address the shortcomings of the health system in rural areas of developing citizens, local bypassing corrupt officials ... Ashok Jhunjhunwala, a member of the Science Advisory Indian Prime Minister even suggested that the income was telecentres in rural villages doubled. Agronomist Monkombu Swaminathan, the father of the "green revolution" in India, for what is called a call center set up in each of the 000,640 villages. Other countries followed suit and brought their own national tele-centers. "

"Driven to the excitement of telecentres to spread throughout the rest of ICT4D. Personalities of technology and development in the fire. At the time, Nicholas Negroponte, founder of One Laptop Per Child project (One Laptop Per Child OLPC) project to cheap laptops hp pavilion dv4 battery for poor children, escalated said: "Children in Third World countries need new technologies, especially in the rugged hardware and innovative software." Kofi Annan has publicly supported the project, said Edward Friedman, director of the Center for Technology Management for Global Development, ".. There is an urgent need for information technology in the use of health care in rural southern sub-Saharan Africa to implement "A recent survey by the BBC showed that 79% of 28 000 adults surveyed, agreed, especially in rich countries with the statement that" the Internet access should be a fundamental right of all peoples "."

In fact, success has rarely, fleetingly, distributed ...

However, Kentaro Toyama acknowledges the success of ICT4D are rare, fleeting and sown. A Retawadi, India, the owner of the telecentre barely managed $ 20 of income per month, while hardware costs, electricity, connectivity and maintenance totaled at least $ 100.

"Over a period of five years, I went in about 50 telecentres throughout South Asia and Africa. The vast majority were very similar to Retawadi. Telecentre operators could not live and available services were poor. Most of them have the same fate as the Telecentre Retawadi closed. Shortly after the opening of the telecentre research, although limited in scope and severity, confirmed my observations on the constant under-performance. "

"New technologies for the optimism and exuberance that are often disappointed by the reality," said Kentaro Toyama. Observers scholars have shown why the Telecentre ICT4D initiatives have failed: in most cases, the design is adapted to the context It is incompatible with the local socio-cultural norms, work it into serious consideration the shortcomings of the structure of the existing visual relationships to the local governments on local services to meet the needs of a business model sustainable ...

The penetration of technology is not progress: Technology is a magnifying glass

ICT4D projects carried out in many areas (education, microfinance, agriculture, health) and with different technologies (computers, mobile phones, electronic devices built to order ...). "Depends on each project, the impact of technology from around the intent and ability to manipulate people," said Kentaro Toyama. The success of projects of  computers HP Pavilion dv7 battery  in schools was based on the support of dedicated teachers and administrators. The process of micro-credits for mobile phones with micro-finance organizations are actually worked. ICT4D projects, which have the most success, it is the partner organizations that have made hard work of real development, ICT4D simply assist and support their efforts.

"If I had all I need is to combine the learning of ICT4D: .. Technology - regardless of their form, even if it is brilliant - will increase the capabilities and intentions of people, there is no substitute when you have one based on competent and well-meaning, then what is the appropriate technology to improve their HP 484170-001 Battery capacity and performance at astounding. "In other cases, not the technology, how to turn a difficult situation. The arrival of the Internet in villages is not enough to change it." Technology is a magnifying glass, because their effect is multiplicative, but terms of social change, it does not add. In developed countries there is a tendency for the Internet and other technologies, as seen, necessarily additive, because the contributors to add a positive value. But their contributions positive are subject to the absorptive capacity of users are often absent in the Third World. The technology has a positive influence on the extent to which people are willing and able to use it positively. The challenge of international development, the independence of the potential of poor communities, the ability to work well intentioned, is a scarce resource and technology can not compensate for this deficit. "

The techno-utopia, which are the widespread use of technology solutions designed accordingly to believe that poverty and other social problems, a trend similar to the penetration of technological progress to be made available. OLPC for example, Kentaro Toyama attack, promotes his computer, based on self-learning and pays little attention to education, the reality of the faculty, programs or school systems in which it is used. "The name of the OLPC is based on currently available technology-based core, while some of us prefer to be trained on the  Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery for his own children." This myth of the scaling of technology is also the religion of the telecentre proponents, who believe the arrival of the Internet in the villages, it is sufficient to transform them. And the same myth is still with the phone, when the New York Times as "the phone, poverty in the world to end?" The statement that "the threat of the proliferation of mobile phones are potentially revolutionary."

The techno-utopia is easier to believe

"Revolutionary! The myth of the scale is interesting because it is easier to achieve than it is because of changes in social behavior and human resource capacity. To speak, in other words, it is much less painful for hundreds of thousands of computers that offer a real education Buy hundreds of thousands of children. It is easier to manage a health hotline to convince text messages to people in the water before cooking. It is easier for an application that people know where they can buy drugs, as to convince them that the writing of the drug is good support for their health, it seems clear that the promise of the scale is an illusion, but its promoters often rely on this argument whether consciously or unconsciously -. -. their solutions "Promoting Estimates of annual expenditure for technology development are hard to find, but they range from several tens to several hundreds of millions of billions of dollars over estimated Kentaro Toyama. The development cost of the OLPC is about half the budget, that India is dedicated to the education of its students, an amount mostly spent on teacher salaries. But what sense can the cost of a computer, while 0.5 million will be used to provide medication to reduce the incidence of lead parasites, diseases, and a year and a school population of 25%?

Supporters of the development of technology tend to push for technology funding. "If OLPC claims to be, an educational project, more than a technology project at the same time, it is expected that governments spend $ 1-100000000 laptop," said Kentaro Toyama. Hamadoun Toure, Secretary General of the International Telecommunication Union reported that "governments should consider the Internet as a basic infrastructure such as roads, waste treatment and water supply." "But in terms of poverty extreme, to invest in providing broad access to the downfall of the Internet necessarily in the order of spending on sanitation and transport to competition, "recalls the strength of common sense Kentaro Toyama.

"For the technology could work in any way, if the technology is more for the poor, less educated, it's for the rich and powerful well-trained, but the opposite occurs. The technique helps the rich get richer while they do something for the poor, so that the gap between the haves and have-nots. "

Why digging technology makes the gap between rich and poor?

Technology widens the gap between rich and poor through three mechanisms explained Kentaro Toyama:

The different approach: Technology is always accessible to the rich and powerful. It costs money, acquisition, operation, maintenance and update. And the digital divide exists, even if the technology is fully funded. For example, most public libraries in the United States offer free access to the Internet, but the poorest less free time to visit them and harder to master, as to meet the costs of transport, in particular, he argues . In addition to the social barriers: Many rural telecentres in developing countries are not available, the less privileged in their villages because of the social order, the problems of caste, tribe or gender.

Besides the material tends to be for the rich content and software that are designed, written for people with disposable income. Although the products seem to be free, such as televisions, they are often advertisers, helps consumers more disposable income. The result is that the poor are further disadvantaged. India has more than twenty languages ​​nationally recognized, however, almost all software used in the English language, making it difficult for people to read and write in their local languages, dealing with computers. And this trend is self-reinforcing itself ". If a technology is not for someone not to buy have designed, and when not to buy, Sony VGP-BPS9 Battery manufacturers do not develop good design "

It is possible to fight against these different access, said Kentaro Toyama, but how the telecentre projects in action. "But are progressive practices in technology is not very effective on their own because of the differences, besides the equipment can not be undone. Playing field, they do not relate to underlying problems, inequalities between the players themselves. "

Different social groups, even if the difference in access to technology by the universal diffusion of technology, the differential capacity in the areas of education, social skills and social ties are met, it is. Using the same technology, after his studies, his confidence in himself, his social environment, organizational Sony VGP-BPS9/b Battery capacity ... Two people are not the same advantages of shooting in the same technology. "With a limited capacity in terms of literacy, education, social, political influence, the value of the technology itself is limited."

A third mechanism contributes to the widening gap between the privileged and the excluded: In order to use the difference. To find out what people want with the technology they have access? "Many of us were surprised to learn that the poor are in no hurry online education, care practices, or develop job skills. Instead, they are technology, intended primarily for entertainment. Telecentres many people in videos on YouTube Upload expert, but use them as an accounting software or access to a language course. Even in developed countries have the technology, the first game and entertainment. And this trend is even more pronounced among people with low self-confidence and the knowledge of their growing impotence.

"I do not blame the victim. None of these mechanisms is not the absence of one of those who leave the poor and uneducated. Whether it is to blame, but the historical circumstances, social structures, and the refusal of rich countries, in a large - invest in the quality of universal education is indeed a good reason to value education in the fact that 'it creates the desire and ability, the modern tools -. One more reason to focus on the development of human potential, rather than trying to compensate for the limitations of technology. "

This leads to technical progress?

North America, Western Europe, Japan and some other blessed reached its economic status of economic power, long before digital technology. Its peak of production and consumption of Dell Studio 1537 Battery information technology can do more than the result of economic progress, can be interpreted as a primary cause, said Kentaro Toyama.

Previous requests for information and communication in developing countries have not made directly to the socio-economic progress, as shown in the example of television. Television has certainly positive effects: the economist Robert Jensen and Emily Oster has shown (pdf) How TV has developed in urban areas from rural social settings Pierce Indian women .. A nonprofit organization, the Population Media Center, explicitly, this principle applies to birth rates and influence the practice of health care in developing countries by the soap with positive social messages. While it is encouraging to note Kentaro Toyama. But the influence of television on development to term expectations so far away.

In 60 years, Wilbur Schramm, the father of Communication Studies and co-founder of the department of communication at Stanford, described in the Information and National Development, hopes that television accounted for Education and Development. It should be noted that these hopes have not materialized. "Whatever the potential of television, it failed to promote large-scale development, even if it has spread everywhere", whether in developed countries than in developing countries.

"My goal is not to say that technology is useless. To the extent we are willing and able to develop the technology for the positive, it has a positive effect. For example, Digital Green (DG), one of the most successful projects in ICT4D, I supervised at Microsoft Research encourages the use of videos to teach small farmers how to have better agricultural practices. When it comes to persuading farmers to adopt best practices, DG is ten times more profitable than conventional farming. "

"But the value of technology is subject to the motivations and Sony VGP-BPS18 Battery capacities of organizations seeking to use" remember Kentaro Toyama, "the villagers must be organized, the content must be produced and teachers must be trained." The limiting factor in the spread of the impact of DG, such is not based on the number of cameras that organizers can buy or how many videos they can produce, but on how many groups have good initial practice. If the initial groups are few, the institutional capacity building is the most difficult. In other words, "the diffusion of technology is easy but to maintain the rights and organizations that have made the proper use is critical."

After the computer, the laptop?

"Technology is only a magnifying glass, not only in development elsewhere. No one thinks that we can turn a losing business simply by injecting new computers, but well-managed companies can benefit, for example, computerized supply chain. A gun in good hands protects citizens and maintaining peace in the wrong hands, it kills and oppresses. modern industrial technology increases our ability to produce, but also amplifies our desire to consume. On a planet with limited resources, it may also sign our ruin. Dell Latitude 2110 Battery History also shows that the technology of democracy can be easily diverted in the absence of civic education: if they are too confident, or if they are not willing and able to implement the necessary checks and balances Computing, weapons, factories and democracy are powerful tools, but the. forces that determine how they are used at the end are human beings. "

This seems obvious, but it is forgotten in the rush to scale, said Kentaro Toyama. Currently, the international development community through a love affair with the mobile phone. The work of Robert Jensen and Jenny C. Aker show that mobile phones can eliminate certain types of information inefficiencies in the Compaq Presario CQ61 markets of the developing world (see for example: The impact of mobile telephony on the functioning of markets in sub-Saharan Africa (PDF).). Encouraged by this discovery and the high penetration of mobile telephony, foundations and institutions for the development have formed working groups and to encourage the development of entire departments dedicated to mobile. In these circles, it is not possible to discuss microfinance and health not to mention the mobile.

"The technology lens, however, suggests that it is a unilateral vision of mobile telephony. For it is not only the intentions of production that are amplified by the mobile phone. When a rickshaw puller who earns a dollar a day pays his operator for the privilege to change the tone, it generated a net benefit to himself or to society? "Kathleen Diga, University of KwaZulu Natal found that some households in Uganda has given priority to the talk time on mobile rather than nutrition or the purchase of drinking water (see the pdf of the paper.). Sociologist Jenna Burrell noted that mobile phones exacerbate relations of domination between the sexes: men using mobile phones as tools of sexual exchange.

While the mobile phone has become the most widespread technology electronics, watching television and radio, with 4.5 billion active accounts affecting 80% of the world, one might think that high indicate that there is no digital divide for real-time communications. Yet studies show that non-Toshiba PA3465U-1BRS battery users are mostly poor, single women and men "politically dumb," concludes Kentaro Toyama. "However, if the spread of mobile phones is enough to make poverty history, we will not soon know," quips researcher. "But if not, when will we see again our hopes on the gadget of the brand new future that we propose in the developing world?"

diggdi : : microsoft research


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